Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint
The knee joint, which appears like a simple hinge-joint, is one of the most complex joint. It consists of the femur (thighbone), tibia (shinbone) and patella (kneecap).
The knee is a synovial joint, which means it is lined by synovium. The synovium produces fluid lubricating and nourishing the inside of the joint.
Articular cartilage is the smooth surfaces at the end of the femur and tibia. It is the damage to this surface, which causes arthritis.
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.
The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.
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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.
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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.
ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.
ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon
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ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon
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Unicondylar Knee Replacement
This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.
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Revision Knee Replacement
This means that complete or a part of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from a very minor adjustment to a massive operation replacing significant amount of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.
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Meniscus tear is the commonest knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A suddenly bend or twist in your knee cause the meniscus to tear. This is a traumatic meniscus tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age.
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Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear & reconstruction
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.
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Medial Collateral Ligament Reconstruction
Medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and is present on the inside of the knee joint. This ligament helps stabilize the knee. An injury to the MCL may occur as a result of direct impact to the knee. An MCL injury can result in a minor stretch (sprain) or a partial or complete tear of the ligament.
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Articular Cartilage Repair
Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.
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